Meibomian gland disease (MGD) is the leading cause of dry eye disease1

MEIBOMIAN GLAND DISEASE

Meibomian gland disease occurs when the meibomian glands do not secrete enough high-quality oil to effectively lubricate the surface of the eyes, resulting in dry eye, irritation, and fluctuating vision.1,2

magnifying glass eye

MGD is an underdiagnosed and often undertreated disease.1

eye drop

Approximately 2/3 of the 34 million patients in the United States with dry eye suffer from MGD.3,4

Symptoms of MGD include

Foreign body sensation, burning, lid itching, crustiness, red eye, light sensitivity, swelling, erythema of the lids, soreness, and excess tearing.3,5,6

Impact of disease

When left untreated, symptoms may worsen and lead to1,6:

  • Inflammation
  • Discomfort
  • Blurry vision
  • Alteration of tear film
  • Gland shrinkage and deterioration
  • Permanent and/or progressive gland loss
  • Ocular surface disease
An infestation of Demodex mites may contribute to MGD.7,8

There are currently no FDA-approved pharmacologic treatments for MGD

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References

1. Nichols KK, Foulks GN, Bron AJ, et al. The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: executive summary. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52(4):1922-1929. 2. Pitts J, Lievens C. Put the squeeze on meibomian gland disease. Review of Optometry. Published September 16, 2009. Accessed May 23, 2022. https://www.reviewofoptometry.com/article/put-the-squeeze-on-meibomian-gland-disease 3. Sun M, Moreno IY, Dang M, Coulson-Thomas VJ. Meibomian gland dysfunction: what have animal models taught us? Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(22):8822. 4. Hauser W. How to answer the “why?” of dry eye. Review of Optometry. Published November 15, 2020. Accessed May 18, 2022. https://www.reviewofoptometry.com/article/how-to-answer-the-why-of-dry-eye 5. Meibomian gland dysfunction and treatment. American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Updated December 2020. Accessed May 18, 2022. https://aapos.org/glossary/meibomian-gland-dysfunction-and-treatment 6. Chhadva P, Goldhardt R, Galor A. Meibomian gland disease: the role of gland dysfunction in dry eye disease. Ophthalmology. 2017;124(11S):S20-S26. 7. Zhang XB, Ding YH, He W. The association between demodex infestation and ocular surface manifestations in meibomian gland dysfunction. Int J Ophthalmol. 2018;11(4):589-592. 8. Amescua G, Akpek EK, Farid M, et al. Blepharitis Preferred Practice Pattern®. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published October 23, 2018. Accessed May 18, 2022. https://www.aaojournal.org/article/S0161-6420(18)32645-9/fulltext

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